Morey, Buchanan, Waldman (2001) . Estimating the Benefits and Costs to Mountain bikers of Changes in Trail Characteristics, access fees, and site closure- choice experiments and benefit transfer Elsevier Science Ltd

This study sets up a model towards understanding the impact closing a trail to mountain biking has on the characteristics of the site at hand. In addition they wonder if adding a user-fee bikers would have any effect. At the Portland Bicycle Show with an interviewed sample of bikers of 289. Bikers largely varied in age, gender, budget and road vs. mountain biker. A cost-benefit analysis was then conducted which showed multiple sin dealing with trail deterioration. Out of all the possible scenarios it was concluded that adding a $4 access fee for bikers would have the best overall outcome. Although this study has some valuable thought for policy it is probably not universal for all parks and vary greatly by which population the trail is used by.